HIP-475: Exchange rate system contract Source

AuthorMichael Tinker
Working GroupDanno Ferrin (@shemnon)
Discussions-Tohttps://github.com/hashgraph/hedera-improvement-proposal/discussions/474
StatusAccepted
Needs Council ApprovalYes
Review period endsTue, 31 May 2022 07:00:00 +0000
TypeStandards Track
CategoryService
Created05-12-2022

Abstract

We propose a new system contract (aka precompiled contract) to convert between tinybars and tinycents at the network’s active exchange rate in system file 0.0.112; that is, at the exchange rate the network is using to calculate fees. The network calculates fees as follows: Starting with the USD resource prices in system file 0.0.111, it multiplies each resource price by the amount of that resource used; then sums all these usage prices to get a total USD value; and finally converts from USD to tinybars via the active exchange rate.

This precompile would NOT be a live price oracle appropriate to use in, for example, a DEX client contract.

Motivation

Suppose a contract aspires to be “self-funding”—that is, it expects users to send enough msg.value with function calls to cover the contract’s Hedera fees.

The problem is that, even though Hedera fees are fixed and predictable, they are denominated in tinycents (USD); but msg.value is denominated in tinybars. So the contract needs to convert from tinycents to tinybars, at the same exchange rate the network will use when charging fees.

Rationale

There are not many degrees of freedom in the design of a component that performs one multiplication and one division; our main goal was to mirror the prior art that began in HIP-206. Thus the function selectors that determine whether the contract converts from tinycents to tinybars, or vice-versa, are computed as the function selectors of the Solidity interface in the below specification.

User stories

  • As the author of a “self-funding” contract, I want to require users to include enough msg.value to cover my contract’s Hedera fees.
  • As the deployer of a contract that holds large hbar reserves, I want a view function that returns the approximate USD value held by my contract.

Specification

The contract is to reside at address 0x168 and implement the below interface,

interface IExchangeRate {
    // Given a value in tinycents (1e-8 US cents or 1e-10 USD), returns the 
    // equivalent value in tinybars (1e-8 HBAR) at the current exchange rate 
    // stored in system file 0.0.112. 
    // 
    // This rate is a weighted median of the the recent" HBAR-USD exchange 
    // rate on major exchanges, but should _not_ be treated as a live price 
    // oracle! It is important primarily because the network will use it to 
    // compute the tinybar fees for the active transaction. 
    // 
    // So a "self-funding" contract can use this rate to compute how much 
    // tinybar its users must send to cover the Hedera fees for the transaction.
    function tinycentsToTinybars(uint256 tinycents) external returns (uint256);

    // Given a value in tinybars (1e-8 HBAR), returns the equivalent value in 
    // tinycents (1e-8 US cents or 1e-10 USD) at the current exchange rate 
    // stored in system file 0.0.112. 
    // 
    // This rate tracks the the HBAR-USD rate on public exchanges, but 
    // should _not_ be treated as a live price oracle! This conversion is
    // less likely to be needed than the above conversion from tinycent to
    // tinybars, but we include it for completeness.
    function tinybarsToTinycents(uint256 tinybars) external returns (uint256);
}

Backwards Compatibility

There are no known sources of backward incompatibility.

Security Implications

A user unfamiliar with this HIP might treat the 0x168 system contract as a live price oracle. If the USD-HBAR rate on major exchanges is changing rapidly, their contract will perform very badly compared to a contract using an actual price oracle.

For the intended use case of converting USD-denominated Hedera fees into tinybar amounts, there are no known security issues.

How to Teach This

Smart contracts can use a new system contract to convert from tinycents to tinybars, and vice-versa. A typical use case that implements a costsCents(x) Solidity modifier might be,

import "./IExchangeRate.sol";

abstract contract SelfFunding {
    uint256 constant TINY_PARTS_PER_WHOLE = 100_000_000;
    address constant PRECOMPILE_ADDRESS = address(0x168);

    function tinycentsToTinybars(uint256 tinycents) internal returns (uint256 tinybars) {
        (bool success, bytes memory result) = PRECOMPILE_ADDRESS.call(
            abi.encodeWithSelector(IExchangeRate.tinycentsToTinybars.selector, tinycents));
        require(success);
        tinybars = abi.decode(result, (uint256));
    }

    modifier costsCents(uint256 cents) {
        uint256 tinycents = cents * TINY_PARTS_PER_WHOLE;
        uint256 requiredTinybars = tinycentsToTinybars(tinycents);
        require(msg.value >= requiredTinybars);
        _;
    } 
}

Reference Implementation

Please see this PR.

Rejected Ideas

An initial implementation used “magic numbers” instead of EVM function signatures to toggle the conversion direction.

Open Issues

No know issues are outstanding.

References

Copyright/license

This document is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 – see LICENSE or (https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0)

Citation

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